Force: Potential Difference (Volts)

S contains the substance M. S= Earth; M = a conductor.
Work equal to 136 Joules is expended in moving 8.5 x 1018 electrons from point x1 in M to point x2 in M.
What is the potential difference in Volts between x1 and x2?

Motion: Current, Electrons In Motion

S contains the substance M. S= Earth; M = a conductor. The coulomb of charge, q, moving pass a fixed point on M in time t, is given by the time-variable function:

q = (4x10-4)(1 - e-250t)(C)

Determine the current passing through the fixed point at time, t= 3 ms(milliseconds).

Equilibrium: Chemical Equilibrium

S contains the substances m1, m2 and m3 S= Earth.
The following is a chemical reaction:

n1m1 + n2m2n3m3 ----(1)

m1 = Nitrogen; m2 = Hydrogen; m3 = Ammonia.

(a) Determine the values of n1, n2 and n3, in a balanced equation of the chemical reaction (1)
(b) What fraction of a stoichiometric reaction of 1 mole of nitrogen and 1 mole of hydrogen in a 1 liter container at 1000oK, could be converted to ammonia at Equilibrium, if the equilibrium constant of reaction (1) is 2.37 x 10-3 at 1000oK.

Change: Entropy

S contains the substances m1, m2, m3 and m4. S= Earth.
The following is a chemical reaction:

n1m1 + n2m2 = n3m3 + n4m4

What role does Entropy play in a chemical reaction?

Change: Enthalpy

S contains the substances m1, m2, m3 and m4. S= Earth.
The following is a chemical reaction:

n1m1 + n2m2 = n3m3 + n4m4 ----(1)

What role does Enthalpy play in a chemical reaction?

Change: Chemical Reactions

S contains the substances m1, m2, m3 and m4. S= Earth.
The following is a chemical reaction:

Motion: Plasma - The Fourth State Of Matter.

S contains m1
S = The Universe.
m1 = plasma.
Use the kinetic theory of matter to explain the existence of plasma.

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