Change: Entropy

S contains the substances m1, m2, m3 and m4. S= Earth.
The following is a chemical reaction:

n1m1 + n2m2 = n3m3 + n4m4

What role does Entropy play in a chemical reaction?

Change: Enthalpy

S contains the substances m1, m2, m3 and m4. S= Earth.
The following is a chemical reaction:

n1m1 + n2m2 = n3m3 + n4m4 ----(1)

What role does Enthalpy play in a chemical reaction?

Change: Chemical Reactions

S contains the substances m1, m2, m3 and m4. S= Earth.
The following is a chemical reaction:

Motion: Plasma - The Fourth State Of Matter.

S contains m1
S = The Universe.
m1 = plasma.
Use the kinetic theory of matter to explain the existence of plasma.

Change: Energy Transfer

S contains m1 and s1 which contains m2. S = Earth.
m1 = Iron; mass = 25 grams; temperature = 160oC.
s1 = an insulated container.
m2 = water; mass = 125 grams; temperture = 20 oC.
(a) How much heat is lost if m1 cools from 160oC to 100oC?
(b) Suppose after m1 has cooled to 100oC, it is dropped into m2. What will be the final temperature of the water?

grouping/Interaction: Acid, Base Neutralization

S contains s1 which contains a base m1 and an acid m2. S = Earth, s1 = a beaker, m2 = nitric acid (HNO3).
Volume of m1 = v; normality = 0.3 N
Volume of m2 = 2 liters; normality = 0.01 N
Determine the value of v necessary to neutralize the nitric acid.

Gouping/Interaction: Concentraion Of Solute In A Solution

S contains s1 which contains a 500 ml solution of m1 and m2. S = Earth, s1 = a beaker,
m1 = 10 grams of sulphuric acid (H2SO4).
m2 = 165 grams of water (H2O).
Determine the following with respect to the solution:
(a) The solute and the solvent
(b) The Molarity (c) Molality (d) Normality (e) Formality
(f) What is the molarity of sodium ions in human blood serum if there are about 3.4 g of sodium ions (Na+) in 1 liter of human blood serum.

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